She agrees, but during the trip she refuses him sex, or later loses interest. He demands the gifts be returned and labels her a scammer. Well, there may be a small chance that all she wanted was citizenship (according to common American beliefs, that's all any of them want - see my discussion of Russian Women Myths for more about that), but that's very rare. But when the divorce rate in America is over 50% anyway why is it that only foreign women who get divorces are labeled as engaging in "marriage scams"? None of these are Russian dating scams by any fair definition.
OR, a man pursues a woman, maybe even sponsors her for a fiancee visa, or even marries her, then after she is here in the U. Or she may have come over with sincere motives but grew very unhappy in the marriage, and maybe that was at least partly the man's fault (and everyone ASSUMES all along she planned to use the man to get to the U. A "scam", at least by my definition, involves INTENTIONAL DECEPTION FOR THE PURPOSE OF FINANCIAL PROFIT.
In some cases men throw around the term "Scam" a bit loosely and label as a scammer any woman who does not fully cooperate.
For instance, a guy may invite a Russian woman with whom he has been corresponding to join him for a tropical vacation at his expense. She accepts, but then does not later acquiesce to his physical demands, or maybe she just eventually loses interest.
If you found my site by Googling something like "Russian dating scams", this is the one page you must read, learn, and live!!! It also constitutes 90% of the advice I'm going to give if you seek my advice about a specific scam situation.
I don't have any official statistics, but I'd estimate that at least 90% of all Russian dating scams fall into one of two categories.
Alternatively, the girl may actually be writing the letters, but the agency shares the revenue with her (so she's "real", her name and photos are accurate, she's actually writing, but she's PAID to do it, and the longer she keeps you writing, the more she earns).
You may think it's just a big dating website, but in reality it is a network of local agencies.
The most obvious indicator that you're dealing with an agency or agency network is that you pay for each message to any girl to whom you write, and usually you must pay for her reply (if she replies).
Direct scams usually perpetrated through email is the first category.
If you sign up for "direct-connection sites" (sites where members communicate directly with one another without any human intermediaries - like Match.com) and correspond via email with women you meet online, you will definitely encounter "Email Scams".